Egyptiske magthavere

Farouk I of Egypt (Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965), was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

His full title was “His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, of Kordofan, and of Darfur.” He was overthrown in the Egyptian Military Coup of 1952, and was forced to abdicate in favour of his infant son Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as King Fuad II. He died in exile in Italy.

Muhammad Naguib (Arabic: محمد نجيب‎) (20 February 1901 – 29 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on June 18, 1953 to November 14, 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan. Disagreements with Nasser led to his forced removal from office, and subsequent 18 year house arrest until his release by President Anwar El-Sadat in 1972.

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر حسين‎, IPA: [ɡæˈmæːl ʕæbdenˈnɑːsˤeɾ ħeˈseːn]; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. Along with Muhammad Naguib, the first President, he led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of modernization, and socialist reform in Egypt together with a profound advancement of pan-Arab nationalism, including a short-lived union with Syria.

Nasser is seen as one of the most important political figures in both modern Arab history and third world politics in the 20th century. Under his leadership, Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal and came to play a central role in anti-imperialist efforts in the Arab World and Africa. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the international Non-Aligned Movement. He is well-known for his nationalist policies and version of pan-Arabism, also referred to as Nasserism, which won a great following in the Arab World during the 1950s and 1960s. Although his status as “leader of the Arabs” was damaged by the Israeli victory over the Arab armies in the Six-Day War, many in the general Arab population still view Nasser as a symbol of Arab dignity and freedom.

Muhammad Anwar Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنور السادات‎ Muḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. He was a senior member of the Free Officers group that overthrew the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, whom he succeeded as President in 1970.

In his eleven years as president he changed Egypt’s direction, departing from some of the economic and political principles of Nasserism by re-instituting the multi-party system and launching the Infitah.

He led the Yom Kippur War of 1973 against Israel, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, throughout the Arab World. Afterwards he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. This won him the Nobel Peace Prize but also made him unpopular among some Arabs, resulting in a temporary suspension of Egypt’s membership in the Arab League,[1][2][3][4] and eventually his assassination.

Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني سيد مبارك‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmːæd ˈħosni ˈsæjːed moˈbɑːɾˤɑk], Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak; born 4 May 1928)[1] served as the fourth President of Egypt, from 1981 to 2011.

Mubarak was appointed Vice President of Egypt in 1975, and assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat. The length of his presidency made him Egypt‘s longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha.[2] Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force, serving as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rising to the rank of air chief marshal.

Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.[3] On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[4][5] On that day Mubarak and his family left the presidential palace in Cairo and moved to Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.[6][5]

Fra Wikipedia

Mohamed Mursi. Mursi vandt med snævert flertal over den tidligere premierminister Ahmed Shafiq. Mursi fik 51,7 % af stemmerne mod 48,3 % til Shafiq.

Adly Mahmoud Mansour (arabisk: عدلي محمود منصور, født 23. december 1945) er leder af den egyptiske forfatningsdomstol og midlertidig præsident af Egypten, indsat den 3. juli 2013. Mansour blev udnævnt til forfatningsdomstolen i 1992 og fungerende som vicechef for forfatningsdomstolen indtil juli 2012, hvor han blev forfremmet som leder af domstolen. Han dimitterede med sin juridiske embedseksamen i 1967 og arbejdede for Egyptens statsråd. Han blev senere uddannet på Frankrigs École nationale d’administration (ENA), hvorfra han dimitterede i 1977. Hans udnævnelse blev annonceret på tv af forsvarsminister generaloberst Abdul Fatah al-Sisi.[1] I en kort tid herefter misfortolkede nogle medier, at valget var faldet på den tidligere leder af den egyptiske forfatningsdomstol Maher El-Beheiry. Mansour har en søn og to døtre med sin ægtefælle.

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (Arabic: عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي‘Abd al-Fattāḥ Sa‘īd Ḥusayn Khalīl as-Sīsī, IPA: [ʕæbdel.fætˈtæːħ sæˈʕiːd ħeˈseːn xæˈliːl esˈsiːsi]; born 19 November 1954) is the sixth President of Egypt, in office since 8 June 2014.[1] Previously he was Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, as well as Minister of Defence, from 12 August 2012 until 26 March 2014.[2] As head of the armed forces, he played the leading role in ousting Islamist President Mohamed Morsi following mass protests against Morsi and his government. El-Sisi was subsequently appointed as First Deputy Prime Minister, while remaining Minister of Defense.

El-Sisi resigned from the military on 26 March 2014, announcing he would stand as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election.[2] The poll, held between 26 and 28 May 2014, resulted in a resounding victory for El-Sisi.[3]